Ohh, there’s nothing like the excitement of a high revving engine. (engine whirring) But that’s metal on metal, how do you protect it? And what’s the difference between a conventional and synthetic oils? That’s why I’m talking about oils! Synthetic oil versus conventionaloil ultimate showdown.

This week we’re talkingabout that good old bubbling crude…oil that is! Black gold, texas tea. Look, oil is the one thingyour car needs to make it work. Well, that’s actually not true. It needs that and gasand electricity and love. But why does your car crave it? Like I crave compliments. Oil is an essential lubricantin your engine that lets the metal come in closecontact to other metal without causing damage. Sounds hot.

Without oil, metal-on-metalfriction would create so much heat that eventually thesurfaces would weld themselves together and the engine would seize. That sometimes happens! If you’re a dummy who forgetsto put oil in your engine. You dipstick. Alright, so inside theengine there’s a system to get that oil where it needs to go. So, here’s a simple breakdown.

There’s an oil pan and that holds the oil. That’s where it sits. The oil pump gets drivenby the engine and it pumps the oil all around. First the pump draws theoil through a strainer, so it can pump it. And after the pump is an oilpressure regulator that makes sure there’s not too much pressure.

Then the oil gets to theoil filter that we all know and love. That filter is designedto allow maximum oil flow while filtering our particlesthat could interfere with the engine. The filtered oilthen pumped through holes in the crank shaft, and mainberring to lubricate them. An oil spout shoots the oilup to the pistons cylinder, so everything moving islubed up in there too! There’s as many variationsof this as there is engine configurations, but in the end, if it’s in the engine there’sa way we’re getting oil on it.

Let’s quickly talk temp. Hot oil can get intomore nooks and crannies because it’s thinner. But, too hot then oil istoo thin and won’t protect. So, some cars send theoil through an oil cooler before it gets back to the pan. Now, your engine has plenty ofoil, but you never change it.

Dirt would accumulate inall the oil and the filter would remove it for a while,but eventually the filter would clog and the dirty oil wouldautomatically bypass the filter through a release valve. Dirty oil is thick, and abrasive,and that causes more wear Think about puttingsand in your underpants.

Also, additives in the oillike detergents, dispersants, and rust-fighters and frictionreducers wear out over time so the oil wouldn’t lubricateas well as it should. Eventually, as the oilgets dirtier and dirtier, it stops lubricating and the engine fails.

So, that’s why you haveto change your oil! Because if you don’t, bad things happen. I know from experience of reading about it because I wouldn’t make that mistake. Motor oil is made from thesame stuff as gasoline. Crude oil contains hydrocarbonsand other organic compounds.

Basically, a naturallyoccurring yellow to black liquid found in geological formationsbeneath the Earth’s surface. It’s buried underneath sedimentaryrock where intense heat and pressure has transformeddead organic organisms, usually plankton and algae,into a mixture of many different chemicals that can be usedin all sorts of products. The name petroleum coversboth naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil andpetroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil.

At a refinery, the raw crudeoil is processed by chemical solvents and heated toprecise temperatures to extract chemicals that’sthen mixed with additives to make motor oils. So what’s the oil you put in your car? Conventional oil is a mixtureof base oil, which is the refined oils made from petroleum,and then some additives. Some common additives are dispersants, that helps it spray better. Detergents, that help it clean better.

Anti-wear additives, that makesure it’s not too abrasive. Friction modifiers to help it lube better Antioxidants to keep it from wearing out. Anti-foam additives to keepbubbles from building up in it. Corrosion inhibitors to keepthe metal in your engine shiny. Viscosity index improverto help keep it thick when it needs to be. And of course, love.

Because the main job of motoroil is to act as a lubricant, one of the most importantproperties of a motor oil is viscosity. The viscosityof a liquid essentially means thickness. Basically,the measure of it’s resistance to flow. According to theautomotive and industrial lubricants glossary of terms,viscosity is ordinarily expressed in terms of thetime required for a standard quantity of the fluid at acertain temperature to flow through a standard orifice. The higher the value, themore viscous the fluid.

Since viscosity variesinversely with temperature, it’s value is meaningless,unless a company by the temperature at which it’sviscosity was determined. With motor oils, the viscosityis now commonly reported in centistokes, measured at either40 degrees celsius or 100 degrees celsius.

So, like I said, the viscositymust be high enough to maintain a lubricating film,but low enough that the oil can flow round the engineparts in all conditions. You know, I have a lubricating film. It premieres this year at Sunday’s. Motor oil’s viscosity hasto be low enough that it’ll flow when cool, but not solow that it fails to lubricate at high temperatures.

Most pure petroleum lubricantsare newtonian fluids. In recent years, engineershave discovered that adding certain carbon polymers topetroleum lubricants will give them non-newtonian characteristics. This makes them much betterat protecting a car engine under a wide range of conditions.

Those polymers are calledviscosity modifiers and motor oil makers have learned to addjust the right combination of viscosity modifiers to createlubricants that flow easily at very low temperatureswhile maintaining enough viscosity to lubricate themoving parts of an engine at very high temperatures.

At cold temperatures, thepolymers are coiled up and allow the oil to flow astheir low numbers indicate. As the oil warms up, thepolymers begin to unwind into long chains that prevent theoil from thinning as much as it usually would. So, those numbers on a quartof oil refer to oil viscosity. Basically, on a scale established by the Society of AutomotiveEngineers, or SAE, man, those dudes really know how to party.

The scale rates oil from alow of five, to a high of 50. Five being thinnest, 50 being thickest. As you’ve probably noticed,most automobile motor oils have got two numbers. These are multi-gradeoils, which means they’re non-newtonian fluids. Take that Newton! What those numbers are 5W-30,10W-40, is a description of the way the oil behavesat cool temperatures. Winter, W, verus operating temperatures.

So, rather than saying theviscosity at a given temp, it says what way oilbehaves like at that temp. 5W-30, at start-up, evenin sub-zero temperatures, this oil will behavelike a five weight oil. That means it behaves like a thinner oil with a lower viscosity. When the engine gets up to210, the 5W-30 oil behaves like a 30 weight oil, a thickeroil with a greater viscosity. It doesn’t mean it is thickerat operating temperatures, it just means it behaves likea thicker oil would behave at operating temperatures.

Got it? It acts like a thin oil when it’s cold, and it acts like athick oil when it’s hot. It does get thinner as it warms, but it does so at a different rate. Since the design of eachengine is different, from the widths of itsnooks and crannies to what temperatures it can reach,car manufacturers will suggest a certain viscosity rangefrom each of their engines.

That’s why you shouldalways the engine oil weight that’s recommended by yourvehicle’s manufacturer, in the owners manual. That being said, most manualswill recommend a range of oils that take into account howharsh your winters might be and whether you’ll be puttingextra stress on your engine by towing or hauling an extra load. Like your mom’s chair.

There’s no one-size-fits-allanswer to motor oil selection. Just be sure to consult yourmanual and choose the oil grade that matches how youdrive for best possible engine protection. There’s also this littlething called synthetic motor oils out there.

Remember those power madscientist I mentioned earlier that play God by adding carbon polymers to petroleum lubricants? They are making what’scalled synthetic motor oil.

Synthetic motor oil is asimilar but different mixture of base oils and additivecomponents that generally lasts longer, performs better, athigher and lower temperatures than conventional motor oils. The American Petroleum Institutedivides oil types into five groups. Three are conventionalmotor oils and two are made up of various types of synthetics.

Synthetic oils often use acombination of up to three different synthetic base fluidsincluding synthetic esters, polyolefin, and alkylated aromatics. So where in the heck do thesesynthetic oils come from? Synesthesia? Space? Was itspace? Did it come from Space? Close! Germany. Germans created the firstsynthetic oils for aircraft engines during World War Two.

Soon, they were used byboth Germany and The U.S. By using the mix of adipic acidester with polyethylene oil the engines could starteasier in the winter, and it eliminated sotdeposits in the oil radiator. Synthetics continued to beused in aircraft and in large hauling vehicles over the nextfew decades, and eventually made their way into car racing engines.

In 1966, French companyMotul released century 2100, the first semi-synthetic car lubricant. In 1971, Motul release century 300V, the first 100% synthetic car oil. iN 1972, AMZOIL broughtsynthetics to the U.S. with it’s 10W-40 synthetic motor oil. The next year Mobil 1 followed suit. A few decades later thisshow came along and about four minutes from nowthe ending will happen. Please like and subscribe. Alright, let me go get some synthetic oil.

Another episode, huh? – Yeah, I’m doing one on oils.There’s a lot of oils here. I think I’m just going to getthe full synthetic Benzoil. – Yeah, that’s pretty good. You know, if you buy fivequarts you get a free oil filter over here. – Yeah, I mean reallyI’m just doing the show I just need to oil so.

Yeah, you got to change youroil sometime though, right? You don’t want to have tomake three trips, do you? – Yeah, alright, let’s get a filter. Thank you Anthony. – You’re welcome. You got a funnel? (lively music) – Oh yeah! (items crashing) Alright we’re going todo some demonstration.

We got a couple different kinds of oil, we got some canola,and grandma’s molasses. One test for viscosity involvesletting oil drip through a small hole, and the morequickly it drips, the less viscous it is. We’re goingto use these two little ramps though so you can seeit with your cute little eyeballs. Hey Nolan, would would youlet me borrow your hands? Could you time this for me? So this is the 0W-60 full synthetic and this is a traditional 0W-40.

Whoa! – The faster oil, the thinneroil, did it in 1.57 seconds. And the thicker oildid it in 2.27 seconds. – And then we can just add iton screen and edit Nolan out. Alright this is canolaoil and this is molasses. – [Man] And the purpose of this is? – To demonstrate how thick andtasty grandma’s molasses is Grandma’s molasses,perfect on your cooking. – Wow.

Yeah, that slower thanmolasses in the winter. Did you hear that phrase? – Ah, yeah. – You’re pretty folksy, Ithought you would’ve heard of that phrase. What we got? – I totally (bleeped) up. – Good. Did you time this one? – This one, 14 seconds forthe molasses to go down. – How much for the canola? – About probably likethree quarters of a second. – The difference betweensynthetic oil and conventional oil is in the molecular structure.

In conventional oil, themolecules come from organic, natural materials, and aswe know, nature isn’t always consistent, so there cansometimes be a few odd ball molecules in conventional oils. Even a super high-qualityconventional motor oil won’t have completely uniform molecules. Some of those tiny inconsistenciescan create friction over time. Synthetic on the other handare created by scientists in a lab.

So, where as conventional oilscontain molecules of varying size, the molecular structuresin synthetics are consistent in mass and shape. This uniformity means thatthose molecules create less friction as they collideand less less friction means less heat. So what doesthis all even mean? Well basically, comparedto standard motor oil, synthetics can withstandhigher temperatures and can flow more easilyin cold temperatures.

Synthetic oil also takeslonger to break down. It does it’s job better evenafter it’s been used a while Compared to conventional oil. Also, if you live in a regionwith very cold winters or very hot summers, or if youuse your vehicle for towing or hauling heavy materials,synthetic oil won’t break down as quickly.

Another great use ofsynthetic oil is a salve for older engines that areprone to sludge build-up. Gunky residue can block oilpassages and lead to a quick death of an engine. While conventional oil works,synthetic oil outperformed them in almost every application. What’s the drawback? Well, they cost more. Like twice as much, butthey can last twice as long.

So instead of changing youroil every three to four thousand miles you can stretchto six, seven, hey maybe fifteen thousand accordingto some manufacturers. Also, if you don’t want tofully commit to synthetic, well you can buy a blend. But you won’t get all of thebenefits that pure synthetic offers.

But conventional oilscan’t stand up to synthetic when it comes to longevity andthe ability to handle extreme high temperatures without breaking down. Well, is there a differencethen in the environment? I mean, getting both stillinvolves highly criticized processes, and as you know,you don’t dump oil that’s bad! But, since synthetics can lastas much as three times longer than conventional oil, thenthat could save the disposal of 24 quarts of oil per year per car, and that’s a lot less pollution.

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